Gregor Mendel is known as the Father of Genetics, and in this lesson we examine the experiments he did on pea plants that lead to the field of science we know now as genetics. We also learn key vocabulary terms such as heredity, traits, genotype, phenotype, and dominant and recessive alleles - all terms we will be using throughout the unit.
A review of the introduction to genetics lesson with supplementary explanation of the material.
There are many relationships among the terms we use in genetics, and this lesson helps make the connections among those concepts more clear. In order for students to have a firm grasp of genetics, it is important to fully understand how the pieces all work in the whole. So toward that end, we look at and explain a couple models to show the relationship between genes, alleles, chromosomes, and DNA. We also discuss what a gamete is, and break down the composition of DNA.
This lesson reviews the vocabulary associated with this lesson and explains how the illustrations represent the terms.
Mitosis and meiosis can be easily oconfused, so this video takes students through the process of meiosis and compares it to the process of mitosis from a previous lesson. We see the similarities and differences, both in the process and in the outcome. We also spend time learning about how meiosis produces offspring that are genetically different from their parents , why that's important, and why that's not the case in mitosis. We also introduce the terms diploid and haploid, as well as the concept of "crossing over".
This is the second part of the video explaining the process of meiosis and how it results in genetically different offspring than the parent generation.
This video reviews the concept of meiosis and guides students through how identifications were made of the processes being depicted.
This video teaches students how to use a Punnett square to determine the probability of an offspring inheriting a certain allele combination. It provides guided instruction and allows students the opportunity to test their skills during the video and then again independently in the accompanying worksheet. Vocabulary that was introduced earlier in this unit is used a reinforced here and we work out several sample Punnett squares as examples.
A review of the skills worksheet that accompanied the Punnett Squares lesson.
This lesson explains the difference between Mendelian genetics, which is what we've been looking at throughout this unit, and polygenic inheritance, which is actually more prevelent. Mendelian genetics gives us our base understanding, and then we can build on that with this lesson, looking at the results of polygenic crosses and multiple allele inheritance and the spectrum of varieties in the gene pool that it creates. We also look at what it means to have co-dominance and incomplete dominance
A review of the material learned in this lesson by going over the practice polygenic crosses.
This video discusses how some traits are sex-linked; determined by the same chromosome that determines your gender. It also goes through what it means to be a carrier and how to determine the probability of inheriting a sex-linked trait. Students learn how to complete a Punnett square for sex-linked traits and go through some real-life examples of conditions that are linked to specific genders.
This review lesson goes through the practice worksheet in detail to help students process the skills they have learned and apply them to new situations.
Students learn to read and use a pedigree to trace the inheritance of certain traits through family lines. This is valuable in determining how a trait was passed on and the odds of inheriting a certain trait in future generations. We also run through some sample pedigrees together so students can do them on their own for practice later.
This is a step by step review of the materials that accompany this lesson, detailing how the pedigrees are created and using Punnett squares to confirm information.
In this video we explore how mutations are a basis for evolution and are so important as a cause of genetic diversity. We learn about how mutatations are caused, including point mutations, insertion, deletion, and then non-random environmentally caused mutations. We stress how mutations are primarily neutral and have no ill-effect the vast majority of the time, and we go through some mutations that have had effects on various populations.
Review of mutations by applying the information learned in the video lesson to situations presented in the assignment.
This video explores several ways genetics affects people now and in the future, including cloning, GMOs, genetic testing, research, and forensics. I attempt to provide unbiased views on these topics so that students can see the pros and cons of both sides. This video is a great leaping off point for further family discussions!
This video covers the aspects of modern genetics that students might most often see in pop-culture; forensic DNA analysis.